Economy, military might and ethnic dynamics notwithstanding, the importance of geography is undeniable. The old adage “you can’t change your neighbors” will always stand true. There is either immense brotherhood or animosity between neighbors.. mostly the latter. Centuries of wrongdoing, victimization, capturing of resources.
The more powerful tribes of the past and the stronger imperial nations have often felt compelled to violate the sovereignty of other nations. Some of those relationships have transformed into mutually beneficial economic relations.
Access to water, trade routes, resources, etc. have historically had greater impact on how two regions deal with each other. This, even though territorial conflicts continue to prevail (Sino-Japan, Sino-India etc).People from up the Indus used to trade with people from down the Indus: modern day China and Pakistan. Same applied to communities around Nile, Tigris, Euphrates, etc.
It is intriguing how nations of the past dealt with each other and how they do so now. Of course, there were fewer regions back than as opposed to nation-states of today. This reduced regional unity and hence the realization to create more geographical blocks like the EU, SCO, BRICS, etc.
This note is hardly the tip of the iceberg in in the importance of “geo” in geopolitics, it will be revisited in greater detail in the future..